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Yemelyan Fomichev
Yemelyan Fomichev

Mature Women Muscle High Quality


We conducted a 12-wk resistance training program in elderly women [mean age 69 +/- 1.0 (SE) yr] to determine whether increases in muscle strength are associated with changes in cross-sectional fiber area of the vastus lateralis muscle. Twenty-seven healthy women were randomly assigned to either a control or exercise group. The program was satisfactorily completed and adequate biopsy material obtained from 6 controls and 13 exercisers. After initial testing of baseline maximal strength, exercisers began a training regimen consisting of seven exercises that stressed primary muscle groups of the lower extremities. No active intervention was prescribed for the controls. Increases in muscle strength of the exercising subjects were significant compared with baseline values (28-115%) in all muscle groups. No significant strength changes were observed in the controls. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers significantly increased in the exercisers (20.1 +/- 6.8%, P = 0.02) compared with baseline. In contrast, no significant change in type II fiber area was observed in the controls. No significant changes in type I fiber area were found in either group. We conclude that a program of resistance exercise can be safely carried out by elderly women, such a program significantly increases muscle strength, and such gains are due, at least in part, to muscle hypertrophy.




mature women muscle



To determine whether 10 weeks of whole-body vibration (WBV) training has a significant effect on strength, muscle mass, muscle power, and mobility in older women, 26 subjects were randomly assigned to a WBV training group (n=13; mean age 79 years) and a control (CON) group (n=13; mean age 76 years). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) increased 38.8% in the WBV group, without changes in the CON group. Electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis, and the biceps femoris (BF) did not change in either group. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area increased significantly after training in VM (8.7%) and BF (15.5%). Muscle power at 20%, 40%, and 60% MVIC decreased from pre-test to post-test in the CON group; however, WBV training prevented the decrease in the WBV group. Consequently, mobility, measured by the Timed Up and Go test, increased significantly after training (9.0%) only in the WBV group. Ten weeks of lower limb WBV training in older women produces a significant increase in muscle strength induced by thigh muscle hypertrophy, with no change in muscle power. The adaptations to WBV found in the present study may be of use in counteracting the loss of muscle strength and mobility associated with age-induced sarcopenia.


Background: Aging is associated with reductions in muscle mass and strength, so-called sarcopenia, and is generally characterized using muscle mass index (MMI = FFM (kg)/height (m)2). It is believed that adequate nutrition especially regarding protein intake, can delay this progression and enhance the quality of life of elders.


Design: Thirty-eight healthy, normal weight, sedentary women, aged between 57-75 years (mean age: 66 +/- 5 years old), and taking no medication that could influence metabolism were recruited. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; muscle protein content was measured by the use of creatinine excretion. Physical activity metabolism was obtained by the use of accelerometry, and indirect calorimetry. Finally, protein intake was measured with a 3-day dietary record.


Results: Significant correlations were observed between MMI and body mass index, fat-free mass, muscle protein content, total protein intake, animal protein intake, fat mass, visceral fat and daily energy expenditure. However, a stepwise regression analysis showed animal protein intake to be the only independent predictor of MMI (r2=0.19; p=0.008).


It has been suggested that a decline in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is a general consequence of aging in humans. However, previous studies have not always controlled for the effects of varying levels of physical activity on muscle oxidative capacity. To test the hypothesis that, when matched for comparable habitual physical activity levels, there would be no age-related decline in the oxidative capacity of a locomotor muscle, the postexercise recovery time of phosphocreatine was compared in the tibialis anterior muscle of young [n = 19; 33.8 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr] and older [n = 18; 75.5 +/- 4.5 yr] healthy women and men of similar, relatively low, activity levels. The intramuscular metabolic measurements were accomplished by using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that there was no age effect on the postexercise recovery time of phosphocreatine recovery, thus supporting the stated hypothesis. These data suggest that there is no requisite decline in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with aging in humans, at least through the seventh decade.


The study was conducted from July 1, 2012, to June 2, 2018. Women were recruited from August 1, 2012, to May 1, 2017, through advertisements in community centers, newspapers, web and social media platforms, public conferences, a research bank of participants, and gynecology and urology clinics in the metropolitan areas of the 2 study centers (Montreal and Sherbrooke, Canada). Women were prescreened by telephone, and those meeting the inclusion criteria underwent subsequent on-site screening. Eligible participants were women aged 60 years or older with symptoms of stress or mixed urinary incontinence who reported at least 3 episodes of involuntary urine loss per week during the preceding 3 months.14 Stress and mixed urinary incontinence were confirmed using the validated Questionnaire for Incontinence Diagnosis.15 Exclusion criteria were body mass index (BMI) 35 or greater (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), reduced mobility (requiring a mobility aid), chronic constipation,16 important pelvic organ prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System >stage 2),17 physiotherapy treatment or surgery for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse in the past year, use of medications for urinary incontinence or affecting skeletal muscles, change in hormonal replacement therapy in the past 6 months, any leakage of stool or mucus, active urinary or vaginal infection in the past 3 months, or any comorbidities or risk factors interfering with the study.13


After an individual session with a physiotherapist to learn how to effectively contract the pelvic floor muscle (PFM), women in both treatment arms received a 12-week PFMT program under the direction of an experienced pelvic floor physiotherapist, either in individual or group sessions. For both interventions, each weekly session lasted 1 hour and included a 15-minute educational period and a 45-minute exercise component. The exercise targeted PFM strength, power, endurance, coordination, and integration into daily living activities, such as coughing. The 12-week training protocol comprised three 4-week phases with the gradual addition of increasingly difficult exercises in terms of duration, number of repetitions, and position.13 The complete PFMT program is presented in eTable 1 and eTable 2 in Supplement 2.


Abbreviations: ICIQ-UI SF, International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form; ICIQ-LUTS QoL, International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life; IQR, interquartile range; ITT, intention-to-treat; NA, not applicable; PFMT, pelvic floor muscle training; PGI-I, Patient Global Impression of Improvement.


Abbreviations: ICIQ, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire; ICIQ-FLUTS, ICIQ-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Sexual Matters; ICIQ-N, ICIQ-Nocturia; ICIQ-VS, ICIQ-Vaginal Symptoms; IQR, interquartile range; ITT, intention to treat; LUT, lower urinary tract; PFMT, pelvic floor muscle training.


Muscle power and strength decrease with age leading to reduced independence and increased health risk from falls. Creatine supplementation can increase muscle power and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of creatine supplementation on body composition, muscular strength, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women. Thirty 58-71 year old women performed three test sessions (T1-T3) each separated by one week. Each session consisted of one repetition maximum tests for bench press and leg press, and isometric hand-grip, tandem gait, upper-body ergometer, and lower-body ergometer tests. Following T2, subjects were assigned to a creatine monohydrate (0.3 g kg body mass(-1) for 7 days) (CR: 63.31 +/- 1.22 year, 160.00 +/- 1.58 cm, 67.11 +/- 4.38 kg) or a placebo (PL: 62.98 +/- 1.11 year, 162.25 +/- 2.09 cm, 67.84 +/- 3.90 kg) supplementation group. CR significantly (P


Background: Older adults show a blunted muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to postprandial hyperaminoacidemia relative to younger adults. Evidence suggests that this anabolic resistance can be overcome by consuming greater quantities of leucine.


Methods: Healthy older (mean SD age: 69 1 y) women (n = 11/group) were randomly assigned with the use of a single-blind, parallel-group design to twice-daily consumption of either WPI [25 g WPI (3 g l-leucine)] or leucine (LEU; 10 g milk protein with 3 g total l-leucine) for 6 d. Participants performed unilateral resistance exercise to allow assessment of the impact of the supplement alone and with resistance exercise. We determined acute (13C6-phenylanine) and integrated [using deuterated water (D2O)] rates of myoPS in the fasting (acute), basal (integrated), nonexercised, and exercised states. 041b061a72


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